A hallmark of our survival in the real world and of our capacity to navigate the complex social interactions of human society is our ability to show behavioral adaptation. Primates in general and humans in particular are highly efficient at spotting informative cues from the environment, from their own body and actions, to maintain or to change decisions. Being fast to react and adapt are the keys to survival. The capacities of cognitive flexibility and adaptation have evolved together with particular brain networks including the frontal cortex. My research aims to identify how brains produce complex behaviour and how these systems have evolved through primate evolution. These systems are assessed using a unique combination of neuroimaging methods in primates and subject by subject analysis, which gives access to the most precise level of the anatomo-functional organization of the cerebral cortex.