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Feed-forward and feedback processing: anatomy, function and physiology, at the EITN, Paris

Published on February 6, 2017



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Feed-forward and feedback processing: anatomy, function and physiology, at the EITN, Paris

published on February 6, 2017

EITN, Paris
April 6th & 7th 2017


The goal of the meeting is to see where we stand on this topic, and to determine the next exciting steps to be taken experimentally in mice, monkeys and humans in order to advance our knowledge in this area.  There will be ~ 20 speakers (8 external and ~12 HBP members). The meeting will be sponsored by subprojects SP3 and SP4 of the Human Brain Project.

 

External speakers:  Andreas Burkhalter, Anthony Holtmaat, Henry Kennedy, Masanori Murayama, Leopoldo Petreanu, Clay Reid, Murray Sherman, Jianing Yu (Svoboda lab).


Human Brain Project:  Pieter Roelfsema, Alain Destexhe, Matthew Larkum, Markus Diesmann, Christiaan Levelt, Huib Mansvelder, William Phillips, Lars Muckli, Karl Zilles, Shimon Ullman, Rainer Goebel, Wim Vanduffel.


The organizers: Robert Sachdev, Pieter Roelfsema, Guy Doron, Matthew Larkum, Alain Destexhe 


Exposition : CLOCK, les horloges du vivant

published on January 13, 2017

L’exposition

Après le succès national de l’exposition Mémoire/S, lauréate du prix Diderot et déjà présentée dans 9 centres de culture scientifique, le collectif ART’M, Science by Art, en partenariat avec La Rotonde, centre de culture scientifique de l’École des Mines de Saint-Etienne, ouvre les portes de sa nouvelle création : CLOCK, une exposition qui a la science des rythmes !Pour la première fois en France, les horloges du vivant font l’objet d’une exposition qui présente les résultats de la recherche contemporaine sur les rythmes biologiques à travers plus de 60 activités : jeux, expériences, vidéos, bandes dessinées et dispositifs interactifs.


Pourquoi les plantes se referment-elles le soir ?
À quelle vitesse battent les ailes du colibri ?
Un bébé respire-t-il comme un adulte ?
Le koala dort 20 heures par jour : est-il paresseux ?


Toutes les formes de vie, des plus simples aux plus complexes, possèdent des systèmes d’horloges dont les scientifiques sont aujourd’hui capables de décrire les mécanismes : photopériodisme, expression génétique, équilibres hormonaux, influence de la lumière.

La scénographie de l’exposition CLOCK se présente sous la forme d’un grand atelier réparti sur 5 espaces : le végétal, l’animal, le corps humain, les horloges et le sommeil. Dans chaque espace, de multiples expériences à faire pour comprendre et apprendre en s’amusant !


Conseil scientifique :
Les contenus de l’exposition Clock s’appuient sur des recherches scientifiques contemporaines et sont validés par André Klasfeld et Claude Gronfier respectivement chercheurs au CNRS, à l’INSERM et par la Société Francophone de Chronobiologie. Par l’intermédiaire de bornes interactives, des experts sont sollicités pour répondre aux questions des visiteurs.


Soutiens :
Le projet CLOCK est soutenu par la Région Rhône-Alpes, la Fondation Bullukian, la Société Francophone de Chronobiologie et la Ville de Saint-Etienne.


À propos du collectif : ART’M, science by art
Implanté à Saint-Etienne depuis sa création en 1987, le collectif Association Recherche Théâtre’ Mouvement s’est d’abord orienté vers des projets mêlant danse, écriture et théâtre avant de diversifier largement son champ d’expériences artistiques. ART’M crée des spectacles immersifs, des visites virtuelles et des expositions scientifiques en mobilisant les talents artistiques et techniques d’une douzaine de collaborateurs réguliers.


Infotmations pratiques :

Du 16 janvier au 30 juin 2016

La Rotonde

Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne

158 cours Fauriel

42000 Saint-Etienne


Renseignement et réservation au 04 77 42 02 78
accueil@ccsti-larotonde.com


Plus d'informations : http://www.artm.fr/portfolio/clock/


PhD Thesis Defense by Loïc Magrou

published on December 16, 2016

Development and structure of cortical networks in the macaque

 

Abstract :
The cortex can be thought of as a network. More specifically it is a network of many different areas, linked together by neurons. If understanding this network will allow a more complete understanding of the functional dynamics of the brain, and therefore of cognition, investigating it is a long endeavour. In the first part of this PhD, we shed some light on the detailed connectivity of the early visual areas in the macaque. Using retrograde tracer, we find that central representations of the visual fields in those areas connects preferentially connect to areas classically attributed to the ventral functional stream. Conversely, peripheral lower field representations appears more involved with the dorsal stream. Interestingly, injections performed in the upper field periphery yield a ventral connectivity, similar to that central representations. In the second part, we explored the accuracy and detecting capabilities of diffusion imaging based tractography. Being the only technique that can safely investigate the connectivity of the human brain, it is important to assess its efficacy with respect to the gold standard of tract tracing. Here are presented results of a preliminary study that will soon lead to using both tracography and tract tracing in the same macaque brain, allowing for a precise assessment of the validity of tract tracing.


Wednesday 21 december, 2pm, SBRI conference room


PhD Thesis defense by Razvan Gamanut

published on December 16, 2016

How does brain size influence the network properties of the cortex?

 

Abstract:
We find that inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and feedback projections from cortical areas to layer 1 (L1) of the non-columnar mouse V1 are coincident and patchy. The patches are matched to a pattern of M2AChR (M2) expression at fixed locations of mouse, rat, and monkey V1. Neurons in L2/3 aligned with M2-rich patches have high spatial acuity, whereas cells in M2-poor zones have high temporal acuity. Together, M2+ and M2-zones form constant-size domains that are repeated across V1. The domains map subregions of the receptive fields, such that multiple copies are contained within the point image.

We also made 41 injections with retrograde tracers in 22 of the 41 areas of the mouse neocortex. Flat mounts of the cortex, completed with comprehensive histological and genetic criteria enabled allocation of counts of labeled neurons to individual cortical areas. A weight was determined for each connection. Consistency across animals was systematically influenced by mean weight and injection size. The lognormal distribution of connections to a cortical area spanned 5 orders of magnitude and constituted a connectivity profile that was highly characteristic for each area. The resulting matrix showed that 96% of connections that can exist do exist.

Further, using tract tracing data from macaque and mouse, we show a general organizational principle based on an exponential distance rule (EDR) and cortical geometry. We find network invariants between mouse and macaque, but also significant differences, such as fractionally smaller and much weaker long distance connections in the macaque than in mouse. An EDR holds at local scales as well (within 1.5 mm), indicating that it might be a universally valid property across all scales and across the mammalian class.

 

Keywords:

mouse, cortex, connectome, weights, exponential distance rule, Layer 1, modules, macaque

 

Tuesday 20 december, 2pm, SBRI conference room


PhD thesis defense by Anne-Laure Mealier
published on December 6, 2016

How Language Imposes structure on meaning: construal and narrative.

Abstract:

This thesis takes place in the context of the European project WYSIWYD (What You Say is What You Did). The goal of this project is to provide transparency in Human-robot interactions, including by mean of language. The deployment of companion and service robots requires that humans and robots can understand each other and communicate. Humans have developed an advanced coding of their behavior that provides the basis of transparency of most of their actions and their communication. Until now, the robots do not share this code of behavior and are not able to explain their own actions to humans. We know that in spoken language, there is a direct mapping between languages and meaning allowing a listener to focus attention on a specific aspect of an event. This is particularly true in language production. Moreover, visual perception allows the extraction of the aspects of "who did what to whom" in the understanding of social events. However, in the context of human interaction, other important aspects cannot be determined only from the visual image. The exchange of an object can be interpreted from the perspective of the giver or taker. This introduces the notion of construal that is how a person interprets the world and perceive a particular situation. The events are related in time, but there are causal and intentional connection that cannot be seen only from a visual standpoint. An agent performs an action because he knows that this action satisfies the need for another person. This may not be directly visible in the visual scene. The language allows to specify this characteristic: "He gave you the book because you like it".
The first point that we demonstrate in this work is how the language can be used to represent these construals. In response, we have developed a system in which a mental model represents an action event. This model is determined by the correspondence between two abstract vectors: the force vector exerted by the action and the result vector corresponding to the effect of the applied force. The application of an attentional process selects one of the two vectors, thus generating the construal of the event.
The second point that we consider in this work is how the constructions of narrative discourse can be learned with a narrative discourse model. This model is based on both existing neural networks of production and comprehension of sentences, that we enrich with additional structures to represent a context of discourse. We present also how this model can be integrated into an overall cognitive system for understanding and generate new constructions of narrative discourse based on similar structure, but different arguments.
For each of the works mentioned above, we show how these theoretical models are integrated into the development platform of the iCub humanoid robot.
This thesis will explore two main mechanisms to enrich the meaning of events through language. The work is situated between computational neuroscience, with development of neural network models of comprehension and production of narrative discourse, and cognitive linguistics where to understand and explain the meaning according to joint attention is crucial.

Keywords:


[Robotics, Humanoid, iCub, Human-Robot Interactions, Cooperation, Recurrent Neural Network, Cognitive Science, Language, Narrative Discourse, Joint Attention, Construal]

 

Lundi 12 Décembre à 10H00,  SBRI conference room

 


CORTEX Conference by Julien Vezoli

published on November 28, 2016

Inter-areal structural connectivity shapes pattern and strength of frequency-specific functional interactions

Guest Speaker
: Julien Vezoli, Ernst Strüngmann Institute (ESI)

Date : Friday 16 December, 11am in the ISC auditorium

Invited by Henry Kennedy and Kenneth Knoblauch

Higher-order cognitive functions require an integration of top-down and bottom-up information that is thought to be conveyed through anatomical feedback and feedforward connections, respectively. In order to effectively integrate its different inputs, a given area must be able to identify what information is top-down vs. bottom-up. This might be achieved anatomically, since feedforward and feedback connections have different source and termination layers (Markov, Vezoli et al., JCompNeurol 2014). However, strong inter-laminar connectivity implies that these signals could quickly become locally intermixed. Therefore, the cortex might retain additional mechanisms to segregate these different paths of information flow. In the first part of my talk, I will describe recent results that provide a putative mechanism for the cortex to functionally integrate bottom-up and top-down inputs (Bastos, Vezoli, Bosman et al., Neuron 2015; Michalareas et al., Neuron 2016). In the second part of the talk, I will show you work-in-progress (Vezoli et al., SfN 2015) relating anatomical connection strength to frequency-resolved inter-areal functional connectivity and exploring these different band-limited networks for their topographic and graph-theoretic properties.


Lab Meeting SBRI : Olivier Raineteau

published on November 17, 2016

Identiques mais différentes, "cellule souche postnatale" se conjugue-t-il au singulier ou au pluriel?

Speaker : Olivier Rainetau

Date : Tuesday 22 November, 1pm in the SBRI conference room


Conference by Maria Eléna Torres Padilla

published on September 27, 2016

"Epigenetic mechanisms of cellular plasticity"

Guest Speaker : Maria Eléna Torres Padilla, Institut de génétique et de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC), Inserm U964, C.U. de Strasbourg

Date : Monday 3rd October, 2pm in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Nathalie Beaujean


LabEx CORTEX - Prochain évènement Fête de la Science

published on September 12, 2016

Le LabEx CORTEX, en partenariat avec l’ENS de Lyon vous propose une rencontre exceptionnelle avec Vance Bergeron, physicien et sportif de haut niveau, devenu athlète bionique à la suite d’un accident de la circulation. Il nous racontera comment le handicap l’a conduit à réorienter ses recherches et à investir le champ des neurosciences. Nous vous attendons donc le 14 octobre prochain dans l’Amphi Mérieux de l’ENS, à partir de 18h30:


"Quand le handicap d’un physicien fait progresser les neurosciences."

Vance Bergeron, Directeur de Recherche en physique
Sébastien Matéo, chercheur en neurosciences
Amine Metani, chercheur en physique

Plus d'informations:
http://www.cortex-mag.net/vance-bergeron/

Informations pratiques :

Le vendredi 14 octobre 2016 de 18h30 à 20h (accès à la salle à partir de 18h00)
Amphi Mérieux de l’ENS de Lyon

Site Monod – 46, allée d’Italie

69007 Lyon

 

Entrée libre et gratuite
Présence d’interprètes en langue des signes
Places PMR limitées, à réserver au 04 72 91 34 63


PhD thesis defense by Fabrice Gonnot
published on September 8, 2016

«Relations fonctionnelles entre les régulateurs de pluripotence et le cycle
cellulaire dans les cellules souches embryonnaires pluripotentes.»

 

Date : Mardi 27 Septembre à 14h00, Salle de conférence du SBRI.

 

Composition du Jury :

Monsieur ACLOQUE Hervé, Chargé de recherche INRA, INSERM U 935, Université Paris 11
Monsieur DERRINGTON Edmund, Professeur des universités, Université Lyon 1
Monsieur LEMAITRE Jean-Marc, Directeur de recherche INSERM, INSERM U 1183, Université Montpellier
Monsieur NAVARRO-GIL Pablo, Chercheur, Institut Pasteur Paris
Monsieur SAVATIER Pierre, Directeur de recherche INSERM, INSERM U 1208, Université Lyon 1


Conference by John De Vos

published on August 30, 2016

"Anomalies génétiques des cellules souches pluripotentes humaines (ES, iPS) : variants aléatoires ou darwinisme cellulaire ?"

Guest Speaker : Dr John DE VOS, Institut de Recherche de Médecine Régénératrice et de Biothérapies, IRMB - INSERM U1183

Date
: Friday 7 October, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Pierre Savatier


Conference by Charlie Gray

published on June 30, 2016

Distributed cortico-cortical interactions underlying visual working memory

Guest Speaker : Pr Charlie Gray, Montana State University

Date : Thursday 30 June, 4pm in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Henry Kennedy


Conference by Georgios Michalareas

published on June 17, 2016

Alpha-beta and gamma rhythms subserve feedback and feedforward influences among human visual cortical areas

Guest Speaker : Georgios Michalareas, ESI, Frankfurt

Date : Monday 20 June, 2pm in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Henry Kennedy


Conference by Maria Eléna Torres Padilla / CANCELLED

published on June 7, 2016

From totipotency to pluripotency

Guest Speaker
: Maria Eléna Torres Padilla, Institut de génétique et de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERMU964, CU de Strasbourg.

Date : Friday June 17th, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Nathalie Beaujean

 

Maria-Elena did her undergraduate studies at the Faculty of Sciences of the UNAM, Mexico and obtained her Ph.D at the Institut Pasteur in Paris in 2002. She then moved to The Gurdon Institute as a postdoctoral fellow at Cambridge University. In 2006 she joined IGBMC in Strasbourg working as a group leader working on early mouse development regulation by chromatin-mediated changes and epigenetic modifications. In particular, she is interested in understanding how the transitions in cell potency and cell fate are regulated by chromatin-mediated processes. She uses the mouse embryo as a model because this is one of the few systems where it is possible to explore the foundations of totipotency and differentiation, thereby bringing new insights in the biology of the pluripotent stem cells. She has just been appointed Director of the Institute of Epigenetics and Stem Cells of the Helmholtz Zentrum in Munich.


Conference by Brian Rudkin

published on April 28, 2016

Development of novel therapeutics based on antibody mimetics

Guest Speaker : Brian Rudkin, Stem Cell & Brain Research Institute, Inserm U1208, University of Lyon / East China Normal University.


Date
: Wednesday 11 May, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Henry Kennedy

While systems biology approaches analyzing the genome, proteome, interactome, metabolome, etc. are increasing our understanding of complex regulatory and metabolic networks, identification of key proteins that regulate cellular responses and underlying metabolism, remains crucial for furthering our understanding of normal cellular processes and pathological perturbations thereof. Antibody mimetics, called “Peptide aptamers”, conceived to conceptually resemble antibodies, are small combinatorial proteins with a constant scaffold presenting a variable region. Their use for the identification and validation of novel targets and discovery of novel therapeutics in vitro, in cellular models, and in vivo in animal models for human disease, will be discussed.


Conference by Stewart Shipp

published on April 19, 2016

"The functional logic of corticostriatal connections: a reformulation of the initial stage of the cortico-basal ganglia loop "


Guest Speaker
: Stewart Shipp, University College London, London, UK.

Date
: Tuesday 26 April, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Henry Kennedy


Pint Of Science : Super Cellule-Souche et l'Incroyable Cerveau

published on April 19, 2016

Breaking News ! On a trouvé des cellules souches dans des cerveaux adultes. Où ? Quand ? Comment ? Pourquoi ? Mais surtout: quels sont leurs rôles ?

Des cellules-souches dans le cerveau adulte ?

Elodie Gaborieau (Institut Cellule Souche et Cerveau)
Alors que l'on pensait le cerveau totalement figé à l'âge adulte, la recherche animale a récemment mis en évidence la présence de cellules-souches dans certaines régions du cerveau de mammifères adultes. Ces cellules-souches sont encore actives ou activables et vont permettre la naissance de nouvelles cellules, notamment des neurones, durant toute la vie de l'animal. Mais où sont cachées ces cellules-souches ?

À quoi servent les cellules-souches du cerveau adulte ?

Diane Angonin (Institut Cellule Souche et Cerveau)
Des cellules-souches persistent en effet dans le cerveau des mammifères tout au long de la vie. Leurs fonctions ? Elles sont multiples. D’abord, renouveler les cellules neurales, en fabricant de jeunes neurones et autres cellules de maintien du cerveau, pour remplacer celles et ceux qui meurent naturellement. Mais surtout des expériences suggèrent que ces cellules-souches pourraient être recrutées en cas de maladie du système nerveux…

Quel âge ont vos neurones ?

Dr Olivier Raineteau (Directeur de recherche à l'Institut Cellule Souche et Cerveau)
La recherche a récemment mis en évidence des cellules souches dans le cerveau adulte du rongeur. Ces cellules permettent la naissance de nouvelles cellules, notamment des neurones, durant toute la vie de l’animal. Une telle activité germinale est-elle aussi observée chez l’homme ? Comment la mettre en évidence ?

Mardi 24 mai 2016, 20h
Les Feuillants
5 Petite Rue des Feuillants, 69001, France


Le but de Pint Of Science ? Démystifier la recherche scientifique et la faire découvrir au grand public dans un cadre détendu.

 

Informations : https://pintofscience.fr/event/super-cellule-souche-et-lincroyable-cerveau


Conférence Grand Public : Le Cerveau Artistique

published on April 18, 2016

Le LabEx CORTEX, en partenariat avec l’Université Catholique de Lyon a le plaisir de vous annoncer sa prochaine conférence Grand Public intitulée Le Cerveau Artistique. Elle aura lieu le 7 juin dans le Grand Amphi de l’Université de Lyon, à partir de 18h30, et portera sur les sujets suivants :

Le plaisir musical
Claire Brun, Université Catholique de Lyon
Lors de cette conférence, Claire Brun vous montrera que la musique, compétence humaine universelle, a une influence bénéfique sur notre cerveau et notre comportement.

Le regard du peintre
Peggy Gerardin, LabEx CORTEX – Inserm U1208
Au cours de cette conférence, nous verrons que notre héritage artistique pictural présente un témoignage fondamental sur la façon dont notre cerveau perçoit le monde et construit activement ses propres représentations.

Informations pratiques :

Le mardi 7 juin 2016 de 18h30 à 20h30 (accès à la salle à partir de 18h00)
Grand Amphi de l’Université de Lyon
90, rue Pasteur
69007 Lyon

A noter, la présence d’interprètes en langue des signes
Pas d’inscription requise

Renseignements : www.cortex-mag.net/le-cerveau-artistique


Conference by Isabelle Caillé

published on March 10, 2016

Local translation and adult neurogenesis

Guest Speaker : Dr Isabelle Caillé, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, équipe "Development and Plasticity of Neuronal Networks"

Date : Monday, March 14th, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Olivier Raineteau

Isabelle Caillé’s talk will focus on the role of synaptic local translation in the integration and plasticity of adult-born neurons. More specifically, it will tackle the role of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), protein missing in the Fragile X Syndrome and major regulator of local translation, and of one of its mRNA targets, the alpha-subunit  of the Calcium/Calmodulin dependent Kinase II. Her work shows in particular that FMRP-regulated local translation underlies the extreme structural plasticity of adult-born neurons induced by learning.


CORTEX Conference : Prof. Stefan Treue

published on February 29, 2016

How attention shapes visual information processing in primate cortex.

Guest Speaker
: Prof. Stefan Treue - German Primate Center (Leibniz Institute for Primate Research)

Date : Tuesday 8 March, 4pm in the SBRI conference room.

Invited by Henry Kennedy

Our senses provide much more information to the central nervous system then can be dequately processed. We use attention as a powerful selection mechanism for focussing processing resources on the small fraction of incoming information that is behaviorally relevant at a given moment.
The talk will present experimental findings focusing on the influence of attention on information processing in visual cortex in primates. The observed neurophysiological effects of attention are well matched to the perceptual consequences of allocating attention, namely an enhanced perception of attended objects at the expense of the perceptual strength of unattended portions of the visual input.