Conference by Adrien Meguerditchian
published on March 28, 2017
On the origin of hemispheric specialization for language: hand & brain asymmetries using MRI in baboons (papio anubis)
Guest Speaker : Adrien Meguerditchian, Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, Station de Primatologie, CNRS, Rousset
Date : Tuesday, May 23rd, 11am in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Céline Amiez
Language is an unique system of communication in humans and involve complex hemispheric specialization of the brain. Given the phylogenetic proximity between humans and nonhuman primate species, the investigation of the lateralization of communicative system as well as the cortical organization in apes and monkeys within a comparative approach might enable detecting the potential precursors of hemispheric specialization for language processing in our common ancestors. In previous studies we found that both chimpanzees and baboons - a non-hominid Old World monkey species - showed a robust predominance of right-hand use for communicative manual gestures specifically, indicating that the left-hemisphere might be dominant for the control of gestural communication. In the present brain studies using MRI at the Centre IRMf of Marseille, we investigate the anatomical brain asymmetries of some of key-cortical regions for language in olive baboons (Papio anubis) among 96 subjects housed in social groups at the Station de Primatologie CNRS. We found, for the first time in a non-hominid species, human-like significant neuroanatomical asymmetries toward the left hemisphere for the planum temporale surface and toward the right hemisphere for a specific portion of the Superior Temporal Sulcus's and of the Arcuate's depth. Interestingly, inter-hemispheric asymmetries of the central sulcus depth were shown to be significantly driven by the contralateral direction of handedness (i.e., left- or right-hand), which were previously assessed in those individuals using a bimanual coordinated task. These collective findings suggest that the continuity of hemispheric specialization between apes and humans extend to baboons for key structures of language and handedness. These findings argue that prerequisites of hemispheric specialization for language and handedness might be dated back to the common ancestor of Catarrhini at 30-40 million years ago.
CORTEX conference by Aldo Rustichini
published on April 10, 2017
Biological foundation of economic analysis
Guest Speaker :Aldo Rustichini, University of Minnesota.
Date : April 14th, 11am in the ISCMJ Amphi
A biological foundation of economics is useful, and is possible now. The program consists of replacing "as if" models with mechanistic models, expanding the domain of human personality we consider relevant, and understanding genetic determinants of pathways of personality and choice.
Invited by Marie Claire Villeval
CORTEX conference for the General Public
published on April 10, 2017
Like every year, CORTEX is proposing a conference destined to
exchange with the general public on CORTEX issues. For the second
time, we are collaborating with the PEP69 on
the topic of autism. There will be two conferences. It will start with
Angela Sirigu (ISC Marc Jeannerod) who will tell us more on her recent
results and on her new device called Digitrack which helps in the
diagnosis. Then Anna Rita Galiano (University Lyon 2) will talk about
the complex issue of diagnosing autism in blind children.
Grand Amphi of the University of Lyon - May 23rd from 6.30pm
More information HERE
published on March 17, 2017
The next CORTEX conference will involve two presentations followed by a lunch buffet:
iPS cell models of autism spectrum disorder and post-transcriptional gene regulation during human neurodevelopment - Pr. James Ellis (University of Toronto), invited by Sylvie Rival Gervier
Visual Predictions in different layers of visual cortex - Pr. Lars Muckli (University of Glasgow), invited by Henry Kennedy
Registration for the buffet here until Friday 24th march.
March 31st from 10.30am - ISCMJ Amphi
Emmanuel Procyk on air on France Inter
published on March 13, 2017
Emmanuel Procyk will participate in the
famous scientific radio show La Tête au
carré on France Inter on Wednesday
22nd March to speak about the neurobiology
of mistakes. This was organised in
collaboration with Cerveau et Psycho which
will release a special issue in April about
Feed-forward and feedback processing: anatomy, function and physiology, at the EITN, Paris
published on February 6, 2017
April 6th & 7th 2017
The goal of the meeting is to see where we stand on this topic, and to determine the next exciting steps to be taken experimentally in mice, monkeys and humans in order to advance our knowledge in this area. There will be ~ 20 speakers (8 external and ~12 HBP members). The meeting will be sponsored by subprojects SP3 and SP4 of the Human Brain Project.
External speakers: Andreas Burkhalter, Anthony Holtmaat, Henry Kennedy, Masanori Murayama, Leopoldo Petreanu, Clay Reid, Murray Sherman, Jianing Yu (Svoboda lab).
Human Brain Project: Pieter Roelfsema, Alain Destexhe, Matthew Larkum, Markus Diesmann, Christiaan Levelt, Huib Mansvelder, William Phillips, Lars Muckli, Karl Zilles, Shimon Ullman, Rainer Goebel, Wim Vanduffel.
The organizers: Robert Sachdev, Pieter Roelfsema, Guy Doron, Matthew Larkum, Alain Destexhe
Exposition : CLOCK, les horloges du vivant
published on January 13, 2017
Après le succès national de l’exposition Mémoire/S, lauréate du prix Diderot et déjà présentée dans 9 centres de culture scientifique, le collectif ART’M, Science by Art, en partenariat avec La Rotonde, centre de culture scientifique de l’École des Mines de Saint-Etienne, ouvre les portes de sa nouvelle création : CLOCK, une exposition qui a la science des rythmes !Pour la première fois en France, les horloges du vivant font l’objet d’une exposition qui présente les résultats de la recherche contemporaine sur les rythmes biologiques à travers plus de 60 activités : jeux, expériences, vidéos, bandes dessinées et dispositifs interactifs.
Pourquoi les plantes se referment-elles le soir ?
À quelle vitesse battent les ailes du colibri ?
Un bébé respire-t-il comme un adulte ?
Le koala dort 20 heures par jour : est-il paresseux ?
Toutes les formes de vie, des plus simples aux plus complexes, possèdent des systèmes d’horloges dont les scientifiques sont aujourd’hui capables de décrire les mécanismes : photopériodisme, expression génétique, équilibres hormonaux, influence de la lumière.
La scénographie de l’exposition CLOCK se présente sous la forme d’un grand atelier réparti sur 5 espaces : le végétal, l’animal, le corps humain, les horloges et le sommeil. Dans chaque espace, de multiples expériences à faire pour comprendre et apprendre en s’amusant !
Conseil scientifique :
Les contenus de l’exposition Clock s’appuient sur des recherches scientifiques contemporaines et sont validés par André Klasfeld et Claude Gronfier respectivement chercheurs au CNRS, à l’INSERM et par la Société Francophone de Chronobiologie. Par l’intermédiaire de bornes interactives, des experts sont sollicités pour répondre aux questions des visiteurs.
Le projet CLOCK est soutenu par la Région Rhône-Alpes, la Fondation Bullukian, la Société Francophone de Chronobiologie et la Ville de Saint-Etienne.
À propos du collectif : ART’M, science by art
Implanté à Saint-Etienne depuis sa création en 1987, le collectif Association Recherche Théâtre’ Mouvement s’est d’abord orienté vers des projets mêlant danse, écriture et théâtre avant de diversifier largement son champ d’expériences artistiques. ART’M crée des spectacles immersifs, des visites virtuelles et des expositions scientifiques en mobilisant les talents artistiques et techniques d’une douzaine de collaborateurs réguliers.
Infotmations pratiques :
Du 16 janvier au 30 juin 2016
Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne
158 cours Fauriel
Renseignement et réservation au 04 77 42 02 78
Plus d'informations : http://www.artm.fr/portfolio/clock/
PhD Thesis Defense by Loïc Magrou
published on December 16, 2016
Development and structure of cortical networks in the macaque
The cortex can be thought of as a network. More specifically it is a
network of many different areas, linked together by neurons. If
understanding this network will allow a more complete understanding
of the functional dynamics of the brain, and therefore of cognition,
investigating it is a long endeavour. In the first part of this PhD,
we shed some light on the detailed connectivity of the early visual
areas in the macaque. Using retrograde tracer, we find that central
representations of the visual fields in those areas connects
preferentially connect to areas classically attributed to the
ventral functional stream. Conversely, peripheral lower field
representations appears more involved with the dorsal stream.
Interestingly, injections performed in the upper field periphery
yield a ventral connectivity, similar to that central
representations. In the second part, we explored the accuracy and
detecting capabilities of diffusion imaging based tractography.
Being the only technique that can safely investigate the
connectivity of the human brain, it is important to assess its
efficacy with respect to the gold standard of tract tracing. Here
are presented results of a preliminary study that will soon lead to
using both tracography and tract tracing in the same macaque brain,
allowing for a precise assessment of the validity of tract tracing.
Wednesday 21 december, 2pm, SBRI conference room
PhD Thesis defense by Razvan Gamanut
published on December 16, 2016
How does brain size influence the network properties of the cortex?
We find that inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and feedback projections from cortical areas to layer 1 (L1) of the non-columnar mouse V1 are coincident and patchy. The patches are matched to a pattern of M2AChR (M2) expression at ﬁxed locations of mouse, rat, and monkey V1. Neurons in L2/3 aligned with M2-rich patches have high spatial acuity, whereas cells in M2-poor zones have high temporal acuity. Together, M2+ and M2-zones form constant-size domains that are repeated across V1. The domains map subregions of the receptive fields, such that multiple copies are contained within the point image.
We also made 41 injections with retrograde tracers in 22 of the 41 areas of the mouse neocortex. Flat mounts of the cortex, completed with comprehensive histological and genetic criteria enabled allocation of counts of labeled neurons to individual cortical areas. A weight was determined for each connection. Consistency across animals was systematically influenced by mean weight and injection size. The lognormal distribution of connections to a cortical area spanned 5 orders of magnitude and constituted a connectivity profile that was highly characteristic for each area. The resulting matrix showed that 96% of connections that can exist do exist.
Further, using tract tracing data from macaque and mouse, we show a general organizational principle based on an exponential distance rule (EDR) and cortical geometry. We find network invariants between mouse and macaque, but also significant differences, such as fractionally smaller and much weaker long distance connections in the macaque than in mouse. An EDR holds at local scales as well (within 1.5 mm), indicating that it might be a universally valid property across all scales and across the mammalian class.
mouse, cortex, connectome, weights, exponential distance rule, Layer 1, modules, macaque
Tuesday 20 december, 2pm, SBRI conference room
PhD thesis defense by Anne-Laure Mealier
published on December 6, 2016
How Language Imposes structure on meaning: construal and narrative.
This thesis takes place in the context of the European project WYSIWYD
(What You Say is What You Did). The goal of this project is to provide
transparency in Human-robot interactions, including by mean of language.
The deployment of companion and service robots requires that humans and
robots can understand each other and communicate. Humans have developed
an advanced coding of their behavior that provides the basis of
transparency of most of their actions and their communication. Until
now, the robots do not share this code of behavior and are not able to
explain their own actions to humans. We know that in spoken language,
there is a direct mapping between languages and meaning allowing a
listener to focus attention on a specific aspect of an event. This is
particularly true in language production. Moreover, visual perception
allows the extraction of the aspects of "who did what to whom" in the
understanding of social events. However, in the context of human
interaction, other important aspects cannot be determined only from the
visual image. The exchange of an object can be interpreted from the
perspective of the giver or taker. This introduces the notion of
construal that is how a person interprets the world and perceive a
particular situation. The events are related in time, but there are
causal and intentional connection that cannot be seen only from a visual
standpoint. An agent performs an action because he knows that this
action satisfies the need for another person. This may not be directly
visible in the visual scene. The language allows to specify this
characteristic: "He gave you the book because you like it".
The first point that we demonstrate in this work is how the language can
be used to represent these construals. In response, we have developed a
system in which a mental model represents an action event. This model is
determined by the correspondence between two abstract vectors: the force
vector exerted by the action and the result vector corresponding to the
effect of the applied force. The application of an attentional process
selects one of the two vectors, thus generating the construal of the event.
The second point that we consider in this work is how the constructions
of narrative discourse can be learned with a narrative discourse model.
This model is based on both existing neural networks of production and
comprehension of sentences, that we enrich with additional structures to
represent a context of discourse. We present also how this model can be
integrated into an overall cognitive system for understanding and
generate new constructions of narrative discourse based on similar
structure, but different arguments.
For each of the works mentioned above, we show how these theoretical
models are integrated into the development platform of the iCub humanoid
This thesis will explore two main mechanisms to enrich the meaning of
events through language. The work is situated between computational
neuroscience, with development of neural network models of comprehension
and production of narrative discourse, and cognitive linguistics where
to understand and explain the meaning according to joint attention is
[Robotics, Humanoid, iCub, Human-Robot Interactions, Cooperation,
Recurrent Neural Network, Cognitive Science, Language, Narrative
Discourse, Joint Attention, Construal]
Lundi 12 Décembre à 10H00, SBRI conference room
CORTEX Conference by Julien Vezoli
published on November 28, 2016
Inter-areal structural connectivity shapes pattern and strength of frequency-specific functional interactions
Guest Speaker : Julien Vezoli, Ernst Strüngmann Institute (ESI)
Date : Friday 16 December, 11am in the ISC auditorium
Invited by Henry Kennedy and Kenneth Knoblauch
Higher-order cognitive functions require an integration of top-down and bottom-up information that is thought to be conveyed through anatomical feedback and feedforward connections, respectively. In order to effectively integrate its different inputs, a given area must be able to identify what information is top-down vs. bottom-up. This might be achieved anatomically, since feedforward and feedback connections have different source and termination layers (Markov, Vezoli et al., JCompNeurol 2014). However, strong inter-laminar connectivity implies that these signals could quickly become locally intermixed. Therefore, the cortex might retain additional mechanisms to segregate these different paths of information flow. In the first part of my talk, I will describe recent results that provide a putative mechanism for the cortex to functionally integrate bottom-up and top-down inputs (Bastos, Vezoli, Bosman et al., Neuron 2015; Michalareas et al., Neuron 2016). In the second part of the talk, I will show you work-in-progress (Vezoli et al., SfN 2015) relating anatomical connection strength to frequency-resolved inter-areal functional connectivity and exploring these different band-limited networks for their topographic and graph-theoretic properties.
Lab Meeting SBRI : Olivier Raineteau
published on November 17, 2016
Identiques mais différentes, "cellule souche postnatale" se conjugue-t-il au singulier ou au pluriel?
Speaker : Olivier Rainetau
Date : Tuesday 22 November, 1pm in the SBRI conference room
Conference by Maria Eléna Torres Padilla
published on September 27, 2016
"Epigenetic mechanisms of cellular plasticity"
Guest Speaker : Maria Eléna Torres Padilla, Institut de génétique et de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC), Inserm U964, C.U. de Strasbourg
Date : Monday 3rd October, 2pm in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Nathalie Beaujean
LabEx CORTEX - Prochain évènement Fête de la Science
published on September 12, 2016
Le LabEx CORTEX, en partenariat avec l’ENS de Lyon vous propose une rencontre exceptionnelle avec Vance Bergeron, physicien et sportif de haut niveau, devenu athlète bionique à la suite d’un accident de la circulation. Il nous racontera comment le handicap l’a conduit à réorienter ses recherches et à investir le champ des neurosciences. Nous vous attendons donc le 14 octobre prochain dans l’Amphi Mérieux de l’ENS, à partir de 18h30:
"Quand le handicap d’un physicien fait progresser les neurosciences."
Vance Bergeron, Directeur de Recherche en physique
Sébastien Matéo, chercheur en neurosciences
Amine Metani, chercheur en physique
Informations pratiques :
Le vendredi 14 octobre 2016 de 18h30 à 20h (accès à la salle à partir de 18h00)
Amphi Mérieux de l’ENS de Lyon
Site Monod – 46, allée d’Italie
Entrée libre et gratuite
Présence d’interprètes en langue des signes
Places PMR limitées, à réserver au 04 72 91 34 63
PhD thesis defense by Fabrice Gonnot
published on September 8, 2016
«Relations fonctionnelles entre les régulateurs de pluripotence et le cycle
cellulaire dans les cellules souches embryonnaires pluripotentes.»
Date : Mardi 27 Septembre à 14h00, Salle de conférence du SBRI.
Composition du Jury :
Monsieur ACLOQUE Hervé, Chargé de recherche INRA, INSERM U 935, Université Paris 11
Monsieur DERRINGTON Edmund, Professeur des universités, Université Lyon 1
Monsieur LEMAITRE Jean-Marc, Directeur de recherche INSERM, INSERM U 1183, Université Montpellier
Monsieur NAVARRO-GIL Pablo, Chercheur, Institut Pasteur Paris
Monsieur SAVATIER Pierre, Directeur de recherche INSERM, INSERM U 1208, Université Lyon 1
Conference by John De Vos
published on August 30, 2016
"Anomalies génétiques des cellules souches pluripotentes humaines (ES, iPS) : variants aléatoires ou darwinisme cellulaire ?"
Guest Speaker : Dr John DE VOS, Institut de Recherche de Médecine Régénératrice et de Biothérapies, IRMB - INSERM U1183
Date : Friday 7 October, 11am in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Pierre Savatier
Conference by Charlie Gray
published on June 30, 2016
Distributed cortico-cortical interactions underlying visual working memory
Guest Speaker : Pr Charlie Gray, Montana State University
Date : Thursday 30 June, 4pm in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Henry Kennedy
Conference by Georgios Michalareas
published on June 17, 2016
Alpha-beta and gamma rhythms subserve feedback and feedforward influences among human visual cortical areas
Guest Speaker : Georgios Michalareas, ESI, Frankfurt
Date : Monday 20 June, 2pm in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Henry Kennedy
Conference by Maria Eléna Torres Padilla / CANCELLED
published on June 7, 2016
From totipotency to
Guest Speaker : Maria Eléna Torres Padilla, Institut de génétique et de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERMU964, CU de Strasbourg.
Date : Friday June 17th, 11am in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Nathalie Beaujean
Maria-Elena did her undergraduate studies at the Faculty of Sciences of the UNAM, Mexico and obtained her Ph.D at the Institut Pasteur in Paris in 2002. She then moved to The Gurdon Institute as a postdoctoral fellow at Cambridge University. In 2006 she joined IGBMC in Strasbourg working as a group leader working on early mouse development regulation by chromatin-mediated changes and epigenetic modifications. In particular, she is interested in understanding how the transitions in cell potency and cell fate are regulated by chromatin-mediated processes. She uses the mouse embryo as a model because this is one of the few systems where it is possible to explore the foundations of totipotency and differentiation, thereby bringing new insights in the biology of the pluripotent stem cells. She has just been appointed Director of the Institute of Epigenetics and Stem Cells of the Helmholtz Zentrum in Munich.
Conference by Brian Rudkin
published on April 28, 2016
Development of novel therapeutics based on antibody mimetics
Guest Speaker : Brian Rudkin, Stem Cell & Brain Research Institute, Inserm U1208, University of Lyon / East China Normal University.
Date : Wednesday 11 May, 11am in the SBRI conference room
Invited by Henry Kennedy
While systems biology approaches analyzing the genome, proteome, interactome, metabolome, etc. are increasing our understanding of complex regulatory and metabolic networks, identification of key proteins that regulate cellular responses and underlying metabolism, remains crucial for furthering our understanding of normal cellular processes and pathological perturbations thereof. Antibody mimetics, called “Peptide aptamers”, conceived to conceptually resemble antibodies, are small combinatorial proteins with a constant scaffold presenting a variable region. Their use for the identification and validation of novel targets and discovery of novel therapeutics in vitro, in cellular models, and in vivo in animal models for human disease, will be discussed.