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PhD thesis defense by Abhishek S. Prayagpour

Published on July 19, 2017



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PhD thesis defense by Abhishek S. Prayagpour

published on July 19, 2017

"Characterisation of non-visual photoreception in humans"

 

Date : Mercredi 26 Juillet, 14h30, Salle de conférence du SBRI.

 

Membres du jury :

Professeur Didier Anne, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CRNL), Université Claude Bernard - Lyon  1, Lyon, France - Présidente
Professor Cajochen, Christian, Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland - Rapporteur
Dr. Revell, Victoria, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK - Rapporteure
Dr. Jost, Sophie, École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - Université de Lyon, Vaulx-en-Velin, France - Examinatrice
Dr. Gronfier, Claude, Institut Cellule Souche et Cerveau, Université Claude Bernard - Lyon  1, Lyon, France - Directeur de thèse

 


CORTEX Conference by Ole Peter Ottersen

published on June 14, 2017

Aquaporin water channels and their roles in brain physiology and pathophysiology

Guest Speaker : Ole Peter Ottersen, rector of the University of Oslo and president-elect of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm to give a conference:

Date
: Wednesday 5 July, 11am in the ISCMJ Amphi

Invited by Brian Rudkin and Colette Dehay

Ole Petter OTTERSEN has made seminal discoveries in the field of water transport in the brain and other tissues through unique channels called “Aquaporins”. He achieved this through the development and application of novel technological approaches, and correlating them with physiological and clinical observations. Further, he and his collaborators have contributed to our understanding of the structure, biology and therapeutic potential of regulating their action. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the most abundant molecules in the brain and is particularly prevalent in astrocytic membranes at the blood-brain and brain-liquor interfaces


Conference by Nicolas Rivron
published on June 1, 2017

"Blastoid synthetic blastocysts from stem cells"

Guest Speaker : Rivron Nicolas, Maastricht University, Netherland

Date : Thursday, June 1st, 4pm in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Colette Dehay


CORTEX conference by Daeyeol Lee

published on May 15, 2017

Reward and Uncertainty in the Prefrontal Cortex

Guest Speaker : Daeyeol Lee from Yale School of Medecine

Date : Wednesday 31 May, 11am, ISC Amphi

Invited by Emmanuel Procyk

Uncertainty in the environment affects many aspects of decision making and hence its underlying neural mechanisms. For example, reward from recent actions has a greater effect on subsequent behaviors when the environment is uncertain. Similarly, in social settings, uncertainty in the behaviors of other agents often requires the use of complementary learning algorithms. In our experiments, we found that uncertainty strengthens neural signals related to reward history in the prefrontal cortex during a probabilistic reversal learning task. The results from the same experiment also suggest that the lateral prefrontal cortex might contribute to resolving the curse of dimensionality during reinforcement learning.

Register for the buffet


CORTEX conference by Aldo Rustichini

published on April 10, 2017

Biological foundation of economic analysis

 

Guest Speaker :Aldo Rustichini, University of Minnesota.

 

 

Date : April 14th, 11am in the ISCMJ Amphi

 

A biological foundation of economics is useful, and is possible now. The program consists of replacing "as if" models with mechanistic models, expanding the domain of human personality we consider relevant, and understanding genetic determinants of pathways of personality and choice.

 

Invited by Marie Claire Villeval


CORTEX conference for the General Public

published on April 10, 2017

Like every year, CORTEX is proposing a conference destined to exchange with the general public on CORTEX issues. For the second time, we are collaborating with the PEP69 on the topic of autism. There will be two conferences. It will start with Angela Sirigu (ISC Marc Jeannerod) who will tell us more on her recent results and on her new device which helps in the diagnosis. Then Anna Rita Galiano (University Lyon 2) will talk about the complex issue of diagnosing autism in blind children.

 

Grand Amphi of the University of Lyon - May 23rd from 6.30pm

 

More information HERE


Conference by Adrien Meguerditchian

published on March 28, 2017

On the origin of hemispheric specialization for language: hand & brain asymmetries using MRI in baboons (papio anubis)

Guest Speaker
: Adrien Meguerditchian, Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, Station de Primatologie, CNRS, Rousset

Date : Tuesday, May 23rd, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Céline Amiez


Language is an unique system of communication in humans and involve complex hemispheric specialization of the brain. Given the phylogenetic proximity between humans and nonhuman primate species, the investigation of the lateralization of communicative system as well as the cortical organization in apes and monkeys within a comparative approach might enable detecting the potential precursors of hemispheric specialization for language processing in our common ancestors. In previous studies we found that both chimpanzees and baboons - a non-hominid Old World monkey species - showed a robust predominance of right-hand use for communicative manual gestures specifically, indicating that the left-hemisphere might be dominant for the control of gestural communication. In the present brain studies using MRI at the Centre IRMf of Marseille, we investigate the anatomical brain asymmetries of some of key-cortical regions for language in olive baboons (Papio anubis) among 96 subjects housed in social groups at the Station de Primatologie CNRS. We found, for the first time in a non-hominid species, human-like significant neuroanatomical asymmetries toward the left hemisphere for the planum temporale surface and toward the right hemisphere for a specific portion of the Superior Temporal Sulcus's and of the Arcuate's depth. Interestingly, inter-hemispheric asymmetries of the central sulcus depth were shown to be significantly driven by the contralateral direction of handedness (i.e., left- or right-hand), which were previously assessed in those individuals using a bimanual coordinated task. These collective findings suggest that the continuity of hemispheric specialization between apes and humans extend to baboons for key structures of language and handedness. These findings argue that prerequisites of hemispheric specialization for language and handedness might be dated back to the common ancestor of Catarrhini at 30-40 million years ago.


CORTEX Conferences

published on March 17, 2017

The next CORTEX conference will involve two presentations followed by a lunch buffet:

iPS cell models of autism spectrum disorder and post-transcriptional gene regulation during human neurodevelopment
- Pr. James Ellis (University of Toronto), invited by Sylvie Rival Gervier

Visual Predictions in different layers of visual cortex - Pr. Lars Muckli (University of Glasgow), invited by Henry Kennedy

Registration for the buffet here until Friday 24th march.

March 31st from 10.30am
- ISCMJ Amphi


Emmanuel Procyk on air on France Inter

published on March 13, 2017

Emmanuel Procyk will participate in the famous scientific radio show La Tête au carré on France Inter on Wednesday 22nd March to speak about the neurobiology of mistakes. This was organised in collaboration with Cerveau et Psycho which will release a special issue in April about errors.


Feed-forward and feedback processing: anatomy, function and physiology, at the EITN, Paris

published on February 6, 2017

EITN, Paris
April 6th & 7th 2017


The goal of the meeting is to see where we stand on this topic, and to determine the next exciting steps to be taken experimentally in mice, monkeys and humans in order to advance our knowledge in this area.  There will be ~ 20 speakers (8 external and ~12 HBP members). The meeting will be sponsored by subprojects SP3 and SP4 of the Human Brain Project.

 

External speakers:  Andreas Burkhalter, Anthony Holtmaat, Henry Kennedy, Masanori Murayama, Leopoldo Petreanu, Clay Reid, Murray Sherman, Jianing Yu (Svoboda lab).


Human Brain Project:  Pieter Roelfsema, Alain Destexhe, Matthew Larkum, Markus Diesmann, Christiaan Levelt, Huib Mansvelder, William Phillips, Lars Muckli, Karl Zilles, Shimon Ullman, Rainer Goebel, Wim Vanduffel.


The organizers: Robert Sachdev, Pieter Roelfsema, Guy Doron, Matthew Larkum, Alain Destexhe 


Exposition : CLOCK, les horloges du vivant

published on January 13, 2017

L’exposition

Après le succès national de l’exposition Mémoire/S, lauréate du prix Diderot et déjà présentée dans 9 centres de culture scientifique, le collectif ART’M, Science by Art, en partenariat avec La Rotonde, centre de culture scientifique de l’École des Mines de Saint-Etienne, ouvre les portes de sa nouvelle création : CLOCK, une exposition qui a la science des rythmes !Pour la première fois en France, les horloges du vivant font l’objet d’une exposition qui présente les résultats de la recherche contemporaine sur les rythmes biologiques à travers plus de 60 activités : jeux, expériences, vidéos, bandes dessinées et dispositifs interactifs.


Pourquoi les plantes se referment-elles le soir ?
À quelle vitesse battent les ailes du colibri ?
Un bébé respire-t-il comme un adulte ?
Le koala dort 20 heures par jour : est-il paresseux ?


Toutes les formes de vie, des plus simples aux plus complexes, possèdent des systèmes d’horloges dont les scientifiques sont aujourd’hui capables de décrire les mécanismes : photopériodisme, expression génétique, équilibres hormonaux, influence de la lumière.

La scénographie de l’exposition CLOCK se présente sous la forme d’un grand atelier réparti sur 5 espaces : le végétal, l’animal, le corps humain, les horloges et le sommeil. Dans chaque espace, de multiples expériences à faire pour comprendre et apprendre en s’amusant !


Conseil scientifique :
Les contenus de l’exposition Clock s’appuient sur des recherches scientifiques contemporaines et sont validés par André Klasfeld et Claude Gronfier respectivement chercheurs au CNRS, à l’INSERM et par la Société Francophone de Chronobiologie. Par l’intermédiaire de bornes interactives, des experts sont sollicités pour répondre aux questions des visiteurs.


Soutiens :
Le projet CLOCK est soutenu par la Région Rhône-Alpes, la Fondation Bullukian, la Société Francophone de Chronobiologie et la Ville de Saint-Etienne.


À propos du collectif : ART’M, science by art
Implanté à Saint-Etienne depuis sa création en 1987, le collectif Association Recherche Théâtre’ Mouvement s’est d’abord orienté vers des projets mêlant danse, écriture et théâtre avant de diversifier largement son champ d’expériences artistiques. ART’M crée des spectacles immersifs, des visites virtuelles et des expositions scientifiques en mobilisant les talents artistiques et techniques d’une douzaine de collaborateurs réguliers.


Infotmations pratiques :

Du 16 janvier au 30 juin 2016

La Rotonde

Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne

158 cours Fauriel

42000 Saint-Etienne


Renseignement et réservation au 04 77 42 02 78
accueil@ccsti-larotonde.com


Plus d'informations : http://www.artm.fr/portfolio/clock/


PhD Thesis Defense by Loïc Magrou

published on December 16, 2016

Development and structure of cortical networks in the macaque

 

Abstract :
The cortex can be thought of as a network. More specifically it is a network of many different areas, linked together by neurons. If understanding this network will allow a more complete understanding of the functional dynamics of the brain, and therefore of cognition, investigating it is a long endeavour. In the first part of this PhD, we shed some light on the detailed connectivity of the early visual areas in the macaque. Using retrograde tracer, we find that central representations of the visual fields in those areas connects preferentially connect to areas classically attributed to the ventral functional stream. Conversely, peripheral lower field representations appears more involved with the dorsal stream. Interestingly, injections performed in the upper field periphery yield a ventral connectivity, similar to that central representations. In the second part, we explored the accuracy and detecting capabilities of diffusion imaging based tractography. Being the only technique that can safely investigate the connectivity of the human brain, it is important to assess its efficacy with respect to the gold standard of tract tracing. Here are presented results of a preliminary study that will soon lead to using both tracography and tract tracing in the same macaque brain, allowing for a precise assessment of the validity of tract tracing.


Wednesday 21 december, 2pm, SBRI conference room


PhD Thesis defense by Razvan Gamanut

published on December 16, 2016

How does brain size influence the network properties of the cortex?

 

Abstract:
We find that inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and feedback projections from cortical areas to layer 1 (L1) of the non-columnar mouse V1 are coincident and patchy. The patches are matched to a pattern of M2AChR (M2) expression at fixed locations of mouse, rat, and monkey V1. Neurons in L2/3 aligned with M2-rich patches have high spatial acuity, whereas cells in M2-poor zones have high temporal acuity. Together, M2+ and M2-zones form constant-size domains that are repeated across V1. The domains map subregions of the receptive fields, such that multiple copies are contained within the point image.

We also made 41 injections with retrograde tracers in 22 of the 41 areas of the mouse neocortex. Flat mounts of the cortex, completed with comprehensive histological and genetic criteria enabled allocation of counts of labeled neurons to individual cortical areas. A weight was determined for each connection. Consistency across animals was systematically influenced by mean weight and injection size. The lognormal distribution of connections to a cortical area spanned 5 orders of magnitude and constituted a connectivity profile that was highly characteristic for each area. The resulting matrix showed that 96% of connections that can exist do exist.

Further, using tract tracing data from macaque and mouse, we show a general organizational principle based on an exponential distance rule (EDR) and cortical geometry. We find network invariants between mouse and macaque, but also significant differences, such as fractionally smaller and much weaker long distance connections in the macaque than in mouse. An EDR holds at local scales as well (within 1.5 mm), indicating that it might be a universally valid property across all scales and across the mammalian class.

 

Keywords:

mouse, cortex, connectome, weights, exponential distance rule, Layer 1, modules, macaque

 

Tuesday 20 december, 2pm, SBRI conference room


PhD thesis defense by Anne-Laure Mealier
published on December 6, 2016

How Language Imposes structure on meaning: construal and narrative.

Abstract:

This thesis takes place in the context of the European project WYSIWYD (What You Say is What You Did). The goal of this project is to provide transparency in Human-robot interactions, including by mean of language. The deployment of companion and service robots requires that humans and robots can understand each other and communicate. Humans have developed an advanced coding of their behavior that provides the basis of transparency of most of their actions and their communication. Until now, the robots do not share this code of behavior and are not able to explain their own actions to humans. We know that in spoken language, there is a direct mapping between languages and meaning allowing a listener to focus attention on a specific aspect of an event. This is particularly true in language production. Moreover, visual perception allows the extraction of the aspects of "who did what to whom" in the understanding of social events. However, in the context of human interaction, other important aspects cannot be determined only from the visual image. The exchange of an object can be interpreted from the perspective of the giver or taker. This introduces the notion of construal that is how a person interprets the world and perceive a particular situation. The events are related in time, but there are causal and intentional connection that cannot be seen only from a visual standpoint. An agent performs an action because he knows that this action satisfies the need for another person. This may not be directly visible in the visual scene. The language allows to specify this characteristic: "He gave you the book because you like it".
The first point that we demonstrate in this work is how the language can be used to represent these construals. In response, we have developed a system in which a mental model represents an action event. This model is determined by the correspondence between two abstract vectors: the force vector exerted by the action and the result vector corresponding to the effect of the applied force. The application of an attentional process selects one of the two vectors, thus generating the construal of the event.
The second point that we consider in this work is how the constructions of narrative discourse can be learned with a narrative discourse model. This model is based on both existing neural networks of production and comprehension of sentences, that we enrich with additional structures to represent a context of discourse. We present also how this model can be integrated into an overall cognitive system for understanding and generate new constructions of narrative discourse based on similar structure, but different arguments.
For each of the works mentioned above, we show how these theoretical models are integrated into the development platform of the iCub humanoid robot.
This thesis will explore two main mechanisms to enrich the meaning of events through language. The work is situated between computational neuroscience, with development of neural network models of comprehension and production of narrative discourse, and cognitive linguistics where to understand and explain the meaning according to joint attention is crucial.

Keywords:


[Robotics, Humanoid, iCub, Human-Robot Interactions, Cooperation, Recurrent Neural Network, Cognitive Science, Language, Narrative Discourse, Joint Attention, Construal]

 

Lundi 12 Décembre à 10H00,  SBRI conference room

 


CORTEX Conference by Julien Vezoli

published on November 28, 2016

Inter-areal structural connectivity shapes pattern and strength of frequency-specific functional interactions

Guest Speaker
: Julien Vezoli, Ernst Strüngmann Institute (ESI)

Date : Friday 16 December, 11am in the ISC auditorium

Invited by Henry Kennedy and Kenneth Knoblauch

Higher-order cognitive functions require an integration of top-down and bottom-up information that is thought to be conveyed through anatomical feedback and feedforward connections, respectively. In order to effectively integrate its different inputs, a given area must be able to identify what information is top-down vs. bottom-up. This might be achieved anatomically, since feedforward and feedback connections have different source and termination layers (Markov, Vezoli et al., JCompNeurol 2014). However, strong inter-laminar connectivity implies that these signals could quickly become locally intermixed. Therefore, the cortex might retain additional mechanisms to segregate these different paths of information flow. In the first part of my talk, I will describe recent results that provide a putative mechanism for the cortex to functionally integrate bottom-up and top-down inputs (Bastos, Vezoli, Bosman et al., Neuron 2015; Michalareas et al., Neuron 2016). In the second part of the talk, I will show you work-in-progress (Vezoli et al., SfN 2015) relating anatomical connection strength to frequency-resolved inter-areal functional connectivity and exploring these different band-limited networks for their topographic and graph-theoretic properties.


Lab Meeting SBRI : Olivier Raineteau

published on November 17, 2016

Identiques mais différentes, "cellule souche postnatale" se conjugue-t-il au singulier ou au pluriel?

Speaker : Olivier Rainetau

Date : Tuesday 22 November, 1pm in the SBRI conference room


Conference by Maria Eléna Torres Padilla

published on September 27, 2016

"Epigenetic mechanisms of cellular plasticity"

Guest Speaker : Maria Eléna Torres Padilla, Institut de génétique et de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC), Inserm U964, C.U. de Strasbourg

Date : Monday 3rd October, 2pm in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Nathalie Beaujean


LabEx CORTEX - Prochain évènement Fête de la Science

published on September 12, 2016

Le LabEx CORTEX, en partenariat avec l’ENS de Lyon vous propose une rencontre exceptionnelle avec Vance Bergeron, physicien et sportif de haut niveau, devenu athlète bionique à la suite d’un accident de la circulation. Il nous racontera comment le handicap l’a conduit à réorienter ses recherches et à investir le champ des neurosciences. Nous vous attendons donc le 14 octobre prochain dans l’Amphi Mérieux de l’ENS, à partir de 18h30:


"Quand le handicap d’un physicien fait progresser les neurosciences."

Vance Bergeron, Directeur de Recherche en physique
Sébastien Matéo, chercheur en neurosciences
Amine Metani, chercheur en physique

Plus d'informations:
http://www.cortex-mag.net/vance-bergeron/

Informations pratiques :

Le vendredi 14 octobre 2016 de 18h30 à 20h (accès à la salle à partir de 18h00)
Amphi Mérieux de l’ENS de Lyon

Site Monod – 46, allée d’Italie

69007 Lyon

 

Entrée libre et gratuite
Présence d’interprètes en langue des signes
Places PMR limitées, à réserver au 04 72 91 34 63


PhD thesis defense by Fabrice Gonnot
published on September 8, 2016

«Relations fonctionnelles entre les régulateurs de pluripotence et le cycle
cellulaire dans les cellules souches embryonnaires pluripotentes.»

 

Date : Mardi 27 Septembre à 14h00, Salle de conférence du SBRI.

 

Composition du Jury :

Monsieur ACLOQUE Hervé, Chargé de recherche INRA, INSERM U 935, Université Paris 11
Monsieur DERRINGTON Edmund, Professeur des universités, Université Lyon 1
Monsieur LEMAITRE Jean-Marc, Directeur de recherche INSERM, INSERM U 1183, Université Montpellier
Monsieur NAVARRO-GIL Pablo, Chercheur, Institut Pasteur Paris
Monsieur SAVATIER Pierre, Directeur de recherche INSERM, INSERM U 1208, Université Lyon 1


Conference by John De Vos

published on August 30, 2016

"Anomalies génétiques des cellules souches pluripotentes humaines (ES, iPS) : variants aléatoires ou darwinisme cellulaire ?"

Guest Speaker : Dr John DE VOS, Institut de Recherche de Médecine Régénératrice et de Biothérapies, IRMB - INSERM U1183

Date
: Friday 7 October, 11am in the SBRI conference room

Invited by Pierre Savatier